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2017考研党看过来:英语语法

 

分词的用法

一、分词作定语

作定语的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前。如果被修饰的词是something,anything,everything,nothing等,则分词放在这些词之后。分词短语通常放在被修饰的名词之后。

例如:

This is an interesting book。(=This is a book。It is interesting。)这是一本有趣的书。

There is something interesting in the news。(=There is something in the news。It is interesting。)消息中有些有趣的事。

The machine run by the old worker is made in Shanghai。(=The machine that is run by the old worker is made in Shanghai。)那位老工人开的机器是上海造的。

注意:(1)分词作定语与动名词作定语的区别:

分词和它所修饰的名词有逻辑上的主、谓关系。动名词则没有这种关系,而表示它所修饰的词的用途或有关动作。

(2)现在分词作定语时,它表示动作正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生(或差不多同时发生)。

例如:

Who is the boy dancing over there?在那儿跳舞的少年是谁呀?

The girls swimming in the sea were in danger。 在海里游泳的姑娘们有危险。

如果两个动作在时间上有先后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而往往用主从复合句结构。

例如:

The man who has gone to Shanghai will be back again。到上海去的那个人会回来的。

The teacher wants to talk to the students who smashed the windows。老师要找打破了窗子的那个学生谈话。

(3)be的现在分词being不能用作定语(可用作状语或被动语态中的助动词)。表示这种概念时,也用主从复合句结构。

例如:

He has a brother who is a worker。他有一个当工人的兄弟。

二、作状语

分词和分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、行为方式等意义。表示时间和原因的分词短语相当于对应的状语从句。

例如:

Seeing the teacher entering the room,the students stood up。(=When the students saw the teacher entering the room,They stood up。)学生们看见老师走进房间,都站了起来。(时间)

Heated,the Metal expands。(=The metal expands if /when it is heated。)金属受热而膨胀。(条件、时间)

Being excited,I couldn’t go to sleep。(=As I was excited ,I couldn’t go to sleep。)我兴奋得睡不着觉。(原因)

Being a student,he was interested in sports。(=As he was a student,he was interested in sports。)

他是个学生,所以对体育运动感兴趣。(原因)

Inspired by Dr.Yang’s speech,Li Hua and his classmates decided to study physics harder。(=As they were inspired by Dr.Yang’s speech,Li Hua and his classmates decided to study physics harder。)李华和他的同学们受到杨博士讲话的鼓舞,决定更加努力学习物理。 (原因)

The children went away laughing。=The children went away。They laughed as they went。孩子们笑着走开了。(行为方式)

The professor stood there,surrounded by many students。(=The professor stood there。He was surrounded by many students。)教授站在那里,许多学生围着他。(行为方式)

While reading the newspaper,father nodded from time to time。(=While he was reading the newspaper,father nodded from time to time。)看报时,父亲不时地点头。(时间)(分词前,可加表示时间的连词while或when。)

三、作宾语补足语

例如:

Can you get the machine going again?你能使机器再动起来吗?

You should have your hair cut。你该理发了。

I saw him coming last night。我昨天晚上看见他来了。

四、作表语

例如:

The film is very moving。这部影片很感人。

Your homework is well done。你的作业做得好。

The visitors looked surprised.参观者看上去很惊讶。

The boys were seen walking on the grass。有人看见孩子们在草地上散步。

 

 

——选自:译声宁波翻译公司

 

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